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What is OLED_ OLED Fundamentals


OLEDs are organic LEDs, which means their key components are organic (i.e. carbon based) materials. Unlike LEDs that serve as small point light sources, OLEDs are made in sheet form and are diffuse area light sources. OLED technology has developed rapidly, and a few products have efficacy, lifespan, and color quality specifications comparable to similar LED products. However, OLEDs are still several years away from being widely used as ordinary lighting sources, mainly due to their high cost.

1、 OLED structure OLED is a solid-state device composed of thin carbon based semiconductor layers that emit light when adjacent electrodes are energized. In order for light to escape from the device, at least one electrode must be transparent. The intensity of the emitted light is controlled by the amount of current applied by the electrode, and the color of the light is determined by the type of luminescent material used. In order to generate white light, most devices use red, green, and blue emitters, which can be arranged in various configurations, as shown in the following figure.

2、 The advantages of OLED are similar to the energy-saving potential of LED, but there are differences in many aspects between the two technologies. On the one hand, although LED is a concentrated light source for strong light, OLED can be configured as a larger area, more diffuse light source, and its soft light can be seen directly without the need for a hood, diffuser, lens, shutter, or parabolic shell. The diffuse light emitted by OLEDs allows them to be used very close to the working surface without causing glare to the user, which means that less total light can be used to achieve the required level of illumination. OLED can be made very thin, increasing visual appeal, and can easily attach to the surfaces of walls and ceilings. This, combined with the diffuse characteristics of OLED lighting, enables a new type of lamp and fixture that is both attractive and efficient. OLED can also be made into almost any shape, can be deposited on a flexible substrate, and can be transparent, emitting light from both sides of the device - these characteristics greatly expand the design possibilities and bring a new lighting experience.

3、 The Future of OLED: OLED for general lighting is in a critical stage. OLED "panels" (lighting devices used to construct lighting fixtures) have an efficiency of 85 lm/W and CRI> 90。 The same applies to panels with high brightness, which allow smaller devices to achieve the same level of light output. The service life of OLED panels is also improving, and many products are expected to have a light output of 70% of the initial value after 30000 to 50000 hours of use. But these advances have not addressed the main obstacle to adoption in the OLED market, which is cost. The current price of OLED panels is approximately $100/klm. The solid state lighting opportunity document of the United States Department of Energy shows that in order to make OLED lighting commercially feasible, the panel cost needs to be reduced to about $10/klm.